a lighting fixture is part of a light that is attached to the wall or ceiling where you put the light bulb or other lighting element, and which cannot be easily removed
The explanation from wikipedia.
A light fixture (US English), light fitting (UK English), or luminaire is an electrical device that contains an electric lamp that provides illumination. All light fixtures have a fixture body and one or more lamps. The lamps may be in sockets for easy replacement—or, in the case of some LED fixtures, hard-wired in place.
Fixtures may also have a switch to control the light, either attached to the lamp body or attached to the power cable. Permanent light fixtures, such as dining room chandeliers, may have no switch on the fixture itself, but rely on a wall switch.
Fixtures require an electrical connection to a power source, typically AC mains power, but some run on battery power for camping or emergency lights. Permanent lighting fixtures are directly wired. Movable lamps have a plug and cord that plugs into a wall socket.
Light fixtures may also have other features, such as reflectors for directing the light, an aperture (with or without a lens), an outer shell or housing for lamp alignment and protection, an electrical ballast or power supply, and a shade to diffuse the light or direct it towards a workspace (e.g., a desk lamp). A wide variety of special light fixtures are created for use in the automotive lightingindustry, aerospace, marine and medicine sectors.
The three most common forms of architectural lighting are cove, soffit and valance; all three are integrated into the room’s structure. Cove lighting is located in a ledge, shelf or recess high up on a wall, and the light is bounced toward the ceiling or upper wall. Soffit lighting is located in a soffit or cornice near the ceiling, and the light radiates downward, washing the wall with light. Valance lighting is located in a wood, metal or glass valance (horizontal shield) mounted above a window or high on the wall, and the light bounces both upward and downward. The technique of bouncing light off walls and ceilings is known as indirect lighting, which is favored by many lighting professionals because indirect lighting minimizes shadows and glare. Architectural lighting is most often used as ambient lighting.
Ceiling-Mounted Lighting Fixtures
This broad range of fixtures is, as its name implies, mounted directly to the ceiling, and typically features a glass, fabric, or plastic shade that conceals the lightbulb and helps diffuse light more evenly. Ceiling-mounted fixtures tend to be used to provide ambient light in a room as opposed to accent or task lighting because they provide more general, dispersed lighting
Recessed lighting fixtures.
Installed above the ceiling, this type of lighting has an opening that is flush with the ceiling. A recessed light requires at least 6 inches of clearance above the ceiling, and insulation is essential to ensure that condensation does not drip into the fixture. Recessed lighting sends a relatively narrow band of light in one direction; it can be used to provide ambient, task or accent lighting
Pendants lighting fixture
Pendant lights are lights that hang from a cable, cord, or pipe from an attachment at a ceiling, ending in a shade enclosing a light bulb that primarily provides light in a downward direction, known as a downlight. Pendants are often located over a table or kitchen island because they provide ambient or task lighting, and usually have strong stylistic elements that bring character to a space because they’re so visible.
Track lighting fixture.
Mounted or suspended from the ceiling, track lighting consists of a linear housing containing several heads that can be positioned anywhere along a track; the direction of the heads is adjustable also. Track lighting is often used for task or accent lighting.
Track Lighting and Spotlights lighting fixtures
Track and spotlights are fixtures that are attached to a track that is mounted to the ceiling or hung off the ceiling, depending on the fixture. The linear housing contains several heads that can be moved along the track and reoriented to focus on different directions. This ability to adjust and reposition the lighting makes track lighting ideal for kitchens or gallery spaces where task or accent lighting is needed, but where the desired focus may change.
Undercabinet lighting fixture.
Mounted under kitchen cabinets, this type of lighting can be linear or a single puck-shaped fixture. Undercabinet lighting is extremely popular as task lighting in a kitchen.
Wall Sconces lighting fixtures?
Wall sconces are some of the most decorative fixtures in the lighting market because they are frequently installed at eye-level in most rooms. They can be either uplights or downlights, providing ambient or task lighting, depending on the fixture, but are rarely powerful enough to provide enough illumination alone to light a large space. They’re often found on either side of a fireplace or bed for additional illumination, highlighting these visual focal points in a space.
Cove lighting is an elegant type of lighting that is usually mounted to or incorporated into the upper portion of a wall or ceiling. Usually hidden from direct view, it provides uplighting along the edges of a room onto the ceiling. Today, most cove lighting is provided by a thin strip of LEDs along a cove, or niche, that is already created in the room. It provides diffuse, ambient lighting
Desk, Floor & Table Lamps lighting fixtures.
Made in a wide range of sizes and styles, lamps are extremely versatile and portable sources of light in a room. Most lamps direct light downward, with the exception of a torchiere, which is a floor lamp that directs its light upward. Lamps are often used as task lights, particularly for reading, but can also provide ambient light.
Also known as general lighting, ambient lighting is one of the most common and popular types of lighting, and for good reason. It is used to create a soft glow throughout your space so that you have the light that you need in your home or office. It is generally a very soft light so that you don’t have to deal with any glares in your home. It’s important to make sure that your room is evenly lit, and ambient light is perfect for that.
While it won’t make it easy for you to focus closely on a task that you are working on or to see the fine print, ambient lighting is important to illuminate a room so that you can safely find your way through space. It’s normal for people to start illuminating their space with ambient lighting and then to add additional lighting as they see fit, as this ensures that they can see what they are doing and that they are able to create the right atmosphere in their home or office.
Accent Lighting fixture
When you want to have incredibly concentrated light in your space so that you can draw someone’s attention to a specific area of your room, then you need to make sure that you invest in accent lighting. This is a great way to add drama to your home and to highlight a specific area, whether that is an architectural detail or a piece of art. You will be able to cast a light on a specific area, illuminating it, while also creating shadows in other areas of your room, which will result in a very dramatic effect.
Accent lighting can be used both indoors and outdoors, and when used outside, it can be a great way to highlight areas of your home or your garden that you are particularly proud of. When you use accent lighting correctly, you will be able to make a certain part of your home feel a lot more important than other parts of your space, and this will draw attention and focus from others.
Under-Cabinet Lighting fixtures
It can be very difficult to make sure that you have ample light when you are working in the kitchen, especially if you are worried about whether or not you will accidentally cut yourself with a knife or be able to accurately read the recipe. To ensure that you can easily see what you are doing, it’s time to stop relying on your ceiling light and install under-cabinet lighting in your space. This is a great way to illuminate the entire countertop, which will ensure that you can easily see what you are working on, no matter what time of the day or night you decide to cook
Vintage lighting fixtures
A vintage light is a great way to carry a décor theme through your home if you have a barn, rustic, or cabin theme. The important thing to remember when you decide to use a vintage light in your home is that you need to make sure that the wiring is all safe and up-to-date. The last thing that you want to do is buy and use a vintage light, only to find out that there was faulty wiring and you have put your home and your family at risk. Being careful when purchasing a vintage light and then paying to have it rewired isn’t a bad idea, as this is a great way to mitigate the risk of faulty wiring.
Semi-Flush Mount Fixtures
Semi-mount fixtures come in many different styles, shapes, construction mediums and colors. They typically hang down from the ceiling about 4 to 8 inches. Semi-Flush mounted light fixtures are better for higher ceilings. Ceilings that are 8 feet high a tall person might hit there head on. We do not want you or the guests to have to duck under the light or knock yourselves out on the light fixture.
The semi-mount fixture tends to direct light up toward the ceiling so that the light can bounce off the ceiling and the walls. Then it also, depending on the individual fixture, can direct light to the floor. All of the light coming from this fixture can make your room look and feel bigger.
LED Indirect Lighting
The LED lighting can create so many impressive effects in your room. LED light fixtures are just strips of light. They can be colored blue, green, red, orange, or only white light. They can add a more modern style, or use can use them for an industrial style room. Led lighting is useful in just about any style of decorating. It is excellent in kitchens above countertops and great to use for working light. You can add white LED strips to the top of crown molding to your room for an exquisite and sophisticated look.
Fixture types by how they are installed.
Free-standing or portable
Table lamp fixtures, standard lamp fixtures, and office task light luminaires.
Balanced-arm lamp is a spot light with an adjustable arm such as anglepoise or Luxo L1.
Torch lamp or torchières are floor lamps with an upward facing shade. They provide general lighting to the rest of the room.
Bouillotte lamp: see Bouillotte
Ceiling Dome – Also called the light source(s) are hidden behind a translucent dome typically made of glass, with some combination of frosting and surface texturing to diffuse the light. These can be flush-mount fixtures mounted into the ceiling, or semi-flush fixtures separated by a small distance (usually about 3–12″).
Open ceiling dome – the translucent dome is suspended a short distance below the ceiling by a mechanism that is hidden with the exception of a screw-knob or other device appearing on the outer dome face, and pulling this knob releases the dome
Enclosed ceiling dome The translucent dome mates with a ring that is mounted flush with the ceiling
Recessed light – the protective housing is concealed behind a ceiling or wall, leaving only the fixture itself exposed. The ceiling-mounted version is often called a downlight.
“Cans” with a variety of lamps – this term is jargon for inexpensive downlighting products that are recessed into the ceiling, or sometimes for uplights placed on the floor. The name comes from the shape of the housing. The term “pot lights” is often used in Canada and parts of the US.
Cove light – indirect lighting recessed into the ceiling in a long box against a wall.
Troffer – recessed fluorescent light fixtures, usually rectangular in shape to fit into a drop ceiling grid.
A garden solar lamp is an example of landscape lighting
Outdoor lighting and landscape lighting – used to illuminate walkways, parking lots, roadways, building exteriors and architectural details, gardens, and parks. Outdoor light fixtures can also include forms similar to indoor lighting, such as pendants, flush or close-to-ceiling light fixtures, wall-mounted lanterns and dome lights.
Bollard – A type of architectural outdoor lighting that is a short, upright ground-mounted unit typically used to provide cutoff type illumination for egress lighting, to light walkways, steps, or other pathways.
Each type of ceiling light fixture offers a different set of features designed to accommodate the environment you need to light, including everything from high-ceiling warehouses to settings involving moisture and dust. We’re taking a closer look at some of the most popular types of LED light fixtures used for commercial and industrial applications.
Here are the 8 different types of ceiling lights we’re coving today:
LED High Bays
LED Strip Lights
LED Wraparound Fixtures
LED Flat Panels
Vapor Tight LED
Watertight Light Fixtures
LED Low Bays
LED Wet Locations fixtures
LED Damp location fixtures
LED Linear suspension light
LED Batten light
LED Office suspended light
LED industrial strip light
LED Wall mounted
What’s the Eligible Residential Fixture Types?
High-performing residential lighting products in the categories below are eligible for ENERGY STAR qualification.
accent lights including
ceiling and close-to-ceiling mount (ceiling fan light kits)
recessed down lights including retrofit kits
undercabinet task lights
ventilation fan lights
includes portable desk task lights
includes portable floor task lights
includes table lamps and floor lamps
ceiling and close-to-ceiling mount
Under-cabinet kitchen lights
Fully illuminate countertops with bright and clear white light.